The kinetics and mechanism of bone morphogenetic protein 2 release from calcium phosphate-based implant-coatings

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2018 Sep;106(9):2363-2371. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36398.


Biomimetically deposited calcium phosphate-based coatings of prostheses can serve as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of growth factors to the local implant environment. Based on indirect evidence in previous studies we hypothesize that such agents are liberated gradually from the coating via a cell-mediated degradation. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by investigating the release mechanism and its kinetics by use of a radiolabeled osteogenic agent (131 I-BMP-2) under conditions in which native cell populations with a coating-degradative potential were either absent or present. The release of 131 I-BMP-2 was monitored for 5 weeks, either in vitro or after implantation at an ectopic (subcutaneous) site in rats in vivo. Only from implants that bore a coating-incorporated depot of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was the agent released slowly and steadily over 5 weeks, that is, 50% of the loaded dose was liberated in vivo (5 to 10% weekly), as against 14.6% in vitro (less than 1% weekly). The coatings bearing an incorporated depot of BMP-2 underwent significant cell-mediated degradation, whereas under cell-free conditions no degradation occurred, and the spontaneous release of BMP-2 was negligible. Our findings confirm this carrier system to be a suitable vehicle for the sustained and cell-mediated delivery of BMP-2. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A:2363-2371, 2018.

Keywords: biomimetic coating; bone morphogenetic protein 2; calcium-phosphate carrier; drug-release kinetics; drug-release system.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 / pharmacology*
  • Calcium Phosphates / chemistry*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Drug Liberation
  • Humans
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Ions
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Prostheses and Implants*
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Titanium / chemistry


  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Iodine Radioisotopes
  • Iodine-131
  • Ions
  • calcium phosphate
  • Titanium