Noradrenergic effects on olfactory perception and learning

Brain Res. 2019 Apr 15:1709:33-38. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2018.03.021. Epub 2018 Mar 21.


We here review modulation of olfactory guided behavioral tasks by noradrenaline. In this review we focus on modulation of the main olfactory system in adult rodents. We detail behavioral paradigms commonly used and discuss how sensory perception and learning can be measured using these paradigms. We then describe neuromodulatory effects on several aspects of olfactory processing, including detection and encoding. We describe how memory duration, specificity and duration are affected by noradrenergic modulation.

Keywords: Behavior; Neuromodulation; Noradrenaline; Olfaction; Signal to noise ratio.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Norepinephrine / metabolism*
  • Olfactory Perception / physiology*


  • Norepinephrine