Background: Statins impact the metabolism, concentrations, composition, and function of circulating lipoproteins.
Objective: We evaluated time course relationships between statin-mediated reduction in atherogenic apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing particles and dynamic intravascular remodeling of ApoAI-containing lipoprotein subpopulations in the mixed dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome.
Methods: Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypercholesterolemic, obese males (n = 12) were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/d) and response evaluated at 6, 42, and 180 days.
Results: Reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, ApoB, and triglycerides (TGs) was essentially complete at 42 days (-38%, -32%, and -35%, respectively); rapid reduction equally occurred in remnant cholesterol, ApoCII, CIII, and E levels (day 6; -35%, -50%, -23%, and -26%, respectively). Small dense LDLs (LDL4 and LDL5 subpopulations) predominated at baseline and were markedly reduced on treatment (-29% vs total LDL mass). Cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein activity and mass decreased progressively (-18% and -16%, respectively); concomitantly, TG depletion (up to -49%) and CE enrichment occurred in all high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle subpopulations with normalization of CE/TG mass ratio at 180 days. ApoAI was redistributed from LpAI to LpAI:AII particles in HDL2a and HDL3a subpopulations; ApoCIII was preferentially depleted from LpAI:AII-rich particles on treatment.
Conclusion: Overall, statin action exhibits duality in mixed dyslipidemia, as CE transfer protein-mediated normalization of the HDL CE/TG core lags markedly behind subacute reduction in elevated levels of atherogenic ApoB-containing lipoproteins. Normalization of the HDL neutral lipid core is consistent with enhanced atheroprotective function. The HDL CE/TG ratio constitutes a metabolomic marker of perturbed HDL metabolism in insulin-resistant states, equally allowing monitoring of statin impact on HDL metabolism, structure, and function.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01595828.
Keywords: CETP; High-density lipoprotein; Low-density lipoprotein; Metabolic syndrome; Mixed dyslipidemia; Pitavastatin; Remnants; Very low–density lipoproteins.
Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.