Background: To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig).
Purpose: This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS).
Materials and methods: Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included. Demographic and implant-related data were collected using a structured baseline questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were recorded and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) were assessed using standardized digital radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in peri-implant sulcular fluid.
Results: Bleeding on probing showed statistically significantly higher values in group-2 patients as compared to group-1 patients (P < .01). Probing depth ≥ 4 mm and PIBL was statistically significantly higher in group-1 patients as compared to group-2 patients (P < .05). Mean concentrations of TNF-α (P < .001) and IL-1β (P < .01) were statistically significantly increased in individuals in group 1 as compared with group 2. A significant positive correlations were found between TNF-α levels and BOP (P = .024) and PIBL (P = .016); and significant positive correlation was found between IL-1β and PIBL (P = .018) in group 1, respectively.
Conclusions: Clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters are compromised among vaping individuals. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peri-implant sulcular fluid may suggest greater local inflammatory response in vaping individuals for peri-implant inflammation.
Keywords: electronic cigarettes; interleukin; peri-implant bone loss; tumor necrosis factor alpha.
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