Peri-implant parameters, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta levels in vaping individuals

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018 Jun;20(3):410-415. doi: 10.1111/cid.12597. Epub 2018 Mar 25.


Background: To the author's knowledge, there has been no study that has assessed clinical, radiographic, and immunological peri-implant parameters among individuals vaping e-cigarette (e-cig).

Purpose: This pilot study aimed to compare clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters and levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β levels among individuals vaping e-cigs and never smoker (NS).

Materials and methods: Forty-seven individuals vaping e-cigs (group-1) and 45 NS (group-2) were included. Demographic and implant-related data were collected using a structured baseline questionnaire. Peri-implant plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing depth (PD) were recorded and peri-implant bone loss (PIBL) were assessed using standardized digital radiographs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in peri-implant sulcular fluid.

Results: Bleeding on probing showed statistically significantly higher values in group-2 patients as compared to group-1 patients (P < .01). Probing depth ≥ 4 mm and PIBL was statistically significantly higher in group-1 patients as compared to group-2 patients (P < .05). Mean concentrations of TNF-α (P < .001) and IL-1β (P < .01) were statistically significantly increased in individuals in group 1 as compared with group 2. A significant positive correlations were found between TNF-α levels and BOP (P = .024) and PIBL (P = .016); and significant positive correlation was found between IL-1β and PIBL (P = .018) in group 1, respectively.

Conclusions: Clinical and radiographic peri-implant parameters are compromised among vaping individuals. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in peri-implant sulcular fluid may suggest greater local inflammatory response in vaping individuals for peri-implant inflammation.

Keywords: electronic cigarettes; interleukin; peri-implant bone loss; tumor necrosis factor alpha.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / diagnostic imaging
  • Cytokines / analysis
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta / analysis*
  • Male
  • Non-Smokers
  • Periodontal Index
  • Pilot Projects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis*
  • Vaping / adverse effects*


  • Cytokines
  • Dental Implants
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha