Ghrelin, a gastric-derived acylated peptide, regulates energy homeostasis by transmitting information about peripheral nutritional status to the brain, and is essential for protecting organisms against famine. Ghrelin operates brain circuits to regulate homeostatic and hedonic feeding. Recent research advances have shed new light on ghrelin's multifaceted roles in cellular homeostasis, which could maintain the internal environment and overcome metaflammation in metabolic organs. Here, we highlight our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of the ghrelin system in energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis and its clinical trials. Future studies of ghrelin will further elucidate how the stomach regulates systemic homeostasis.
Keywords: cellular homeostasis; energy storing; ghrelin O-acyltransferase; ghrelin, growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a; glucose metabolism; hedonic feeding; homeostatic feeding; metabolic organ dysfunction; mitochondria.
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