Objectives:To examine the association between diabetes and cognitive function within U.S. Hispanics/Latinos of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American background. Method: This cross-sectional study included 9,609 men and women (mean age = 56.5 years), who are members of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We classified participants as having diabetes, prediabetes, or normal glucose regulation. Participants underwent a neurocognitive battery consisting of tests of verbal fluency, delayed recall, and processing speed. Analyses were stratified by Hispanic/Latino subgroup. Results: From fully adjusted linear regression models, compared with having normal glucose regulation, having diabetes was associated with worse processing speed among Cubans (β = -1.99; 95% CI [confidence interval] = [-3.80, -0.19]) and Mexicans (β = -2.26; 95% CI = [-4.02, -0.51]). Compared with having normal glucose regulation, having prediabetes or diabetes was associated with worse delayed recall only among Mexicans (prediabetes: β = -0.34; 95% CI = [-0.63, -0.05] and diabetes: β = -0.41; 95% CI = [-0.79, -0.04]). No associations with verbal fluency. Discussion: The relationship between diabetes and cognitive function varied across Hispanic/Latino subgroup.
Keywords: Hispanics/Latinos; cognitive aging; diabetes; epidemiology; minority aging.