Status of Rifaximin: A Review of Characteristics, Uses and Analytical Methods

Crit Rev Anal Chem. 2018 Nov 2;48(6):459-466. doi: 10.1080/10408347.2018.1447355. Epub 2018 Mar 26.


Rifaximin, an oral antimicrobial, has many advantages because it is selective intestine, has minimal adverse effects and is used for the treatment of some diseases such as hepatic encephalopathy, irritable bowel syndrome, travelers' diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Clostridium difficile and acute diarrhea. Rifaximin in the form of 200 mg tablets is commercially available. The crystalline α form is therapeutically safe and effective. In most of the official compendia, rifaximin has no monograph and in none of them is there a monograph for rifaximin tablets. The literature, however, contemplates this gap with varied methods. The literature presents some methods for evaluation of rifaximin in both biological fluid and pharmaceutical product. High performance liquid chromatography stands out for the evaluation of rifaximin. Most of the methods reported in the literature are for pharmaceuticals products. They use (1) toxic organic solvents, harmful to the operator and the environment, and/or (2) buffer solution, which has a shorter service life and requires time-consuming washes of the chromatographic system generating more waste. So, this work aims to discuss (i) properties; (ii) applications; (iii) polymorphism and (iv) analytical methods of rifaximin by the look of green chemistry. This review shows an extremely current topic of great importance to the chemical-pharmaceutical area and everything it involves, since the analytical process until the impact on the environment in which it is embedded.

Keywords: Analytical methods; HPLC; antimicrobial; green chemistry; polymorphism; rifaximin.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Humans
  • Rifamycins / analysis*
  • Rifamycins / chemical synthesis
  • Rifaximin


  • Rifamycins
  • Rifaximin