Protein aggregates and proteostasis in aging: Amylin and β-cell function

Mech Ageing Dev. 2019 Jan;177:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2018.03.010. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Abstract

The ubiquitin-proteasomal-system (UPS) and the autophagy-lysosomal-system (ALS) are both highly susceptible for disturbances leading to the accumulation of cellular damage. A decline of protein degradation during aging results in the formation of oxidatively damaged and aggregated proteins finally resulting in failure of cellular functionality. Besides protein aggregation in response to oxidative damage, amyloids are a different type of protein aggregates able to distract proteostasis and interfere with cellular functionality. Amyloids are clearly linked to the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Human amylin is one of the peptides forming fibrils in β-sheet conformation finally leading to amyloid formation. In contrast to rodent amylin, human amylin is prone to form amyloidogenic aggregates, proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes by impairing β-cell functionality. Since aggregates such as lipofuscin and β-amyloid are known to impair proteostasis, it is likely to assume similar effects for human amylin. In this review, we focus on the effects of IAPP on UPS and ALS and their role in amylin degradation, since both systems play a crucial role in maintaining proteome balance thereby influencing, at least in part, cellular fate and aging.

Keywords: Aging; Autophagy; Human amylin; Proteasome; Protein aggregates; Proteostasis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism*
  • Aging / pathology
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / pathology
  • Amyloid / metabolism
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / metabolism
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis / pathology
  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology
  • Humans
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide / metabolism*
  • Protein Aggregation, Pathological / metabolism*
  • Protein Aggregation, Pathological / pathology
  • Proteostasis*

Substances

  • Amyloid
  • Islet Amyloid Polypeptide