Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 2018, 7698193
eCollection

The Association of Digit Ratio (2D : 4D) With Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Affiliations
Review

The Association of Digit Ratio (2D : 4D) With Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Adomas Bunevicius. Dis Markers.

Abstract

Objective: Intrauterine sex hormone environment as indicated by the second to the fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D) can be associated with cancer risk. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association of 2D : 4D with cancer diagnosis, malignancy, and age at presentation.

Methods: Studies that evaluated the association of 2D : 4D with cancer risk were collected from Pubmed/MEDLINE and Clarivate Analytics databases. Nineteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis.

Results: The 2D : 4D ratio was studied in prostate cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, oral cancer, brain tumors, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Low 2D : 4D was associated with prostate cancer, gastric cancer, and brain tumors, while high 2D : 4D, with breast cancer risk and cervical dysplasia. The 2D : 4D ratio was not associated with prostate, breast, and gastric cancer stage. Greater 2D : 4D ratio was associated with younger presentation of breast cancer and brain tumors. The meta-analyses demonstrated that testicular cancer was not associated with right-hand 2D : 4D ratio (p = 0.74) and gastric cancer was not associated with right-hand (p = 0.15) and left-hand (p = 0.95) 2D : 4D ratio.

Conclusions: Sex hormone environment during early development is associated with cancer risk later in life. Further studies exploring the link between intrauterine hormone environment and cancer risk are encouraged.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Flow chart of study selection.
Figure 2
Figure 2
The association of the right-hand 2D : 4D ratio and testicular cancer.
Figure 3
Figure 3
The association of the right-hand and left-hand 2D : 4D ratio with gastric cancer.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 6 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. GLOBOCAN. Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012 v1.0. N.D. 2012.
    1. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2015;385(9963):117–171. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Smith R. A., Andrews K. S., Brooks D., et al. Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2017;67(2):100–121. doi: 10.3322/caac.21392. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Folkerd E. J., Dowsett M. Influence of sex hormones on cancer progression. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2010;28(26):4038–4044. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.4290. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Madhunapantula S. V., Mosca P., Robertson G. P. Steroid hormones drive cancer development. Cancer Biology & Therapy. 2010;10(8):765–766. doi: 10.4161/cbt.10.8.13531. - DOI - PubMed

MeSH terms

Substances

Feedback