The objective of this review was to assess whether dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is better than single KT (SKT) for optimizing the use of expanded criteria donor kidneys. We did a systematic literature search and meta-analyses when possible, pooling data for calculating relative risks (RR) of major outcomes. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. One-year serum creatinine was better after DKT vs. SKT (mean difference -0.27 [-0.37, -0.17], P < 0.001), with less incidence of acute rejection (RR 0.66 [0.52, 0.85], P < 0.001) and without differences at five years. Less DGF was seen in DKT (RR 0.88 [0.76, 1.02], P = 0.09). Mortality at 1 and 3 years was similar after dual or SKT, but mortality at five years was lower after DKT (RR 0.71 [0.53, 0.94], P = 0.02). One-year graft loss was similar between dual (n = 4158) and SKT (n = 51 800) (RR 0.97 [0.87, 1.09], P = 0.62). Three- and five-year graft loss was not considered because of high heterogeneity between studies. In conclusion, short-term graft function and long-term patient survival are better in recipients receiving DKT vs. SKT. However, these differences are based on few retrospective reports with a relatively low number of cases. Good quality randomized controlled trials are needed to assess whether the investment of two kidneys in one recipient is justified in face of the current organ shortage.
Keywords: dual; kidney transplantation; mortality; survival; systematic review.
© 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.