Changing uveitis patterns in South India - Comparison between two decades

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018 Apr;66(4):524-527. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_851_17.

Abstract

Purpose: Changing pattern of uveitis in a subset of a population is an important ocular health indicator.

Methods: A comparative study was done between uveitis patients of 2013 and 1995 using two proportions Z-test.

Results: In 2013, 352 new uveitis cases were examined. Males 56%, females 44%; unilateral 30.4%; bilateral in 69.6%. A specific diagnosis achieved in 66.2%. Anterior uveitis was seen in 35.22%, intermediate uveitis in 30.11%, posterior uveitis in 25%, and panuveitis in 9.65%. There was no significant difference in the incidence of new uveitic cases (1.04% vs. 1.8%). A decline in male preponderance from 64% to 56% (P = 0.0187) was observed. In both studies, anterior uveitis was the most common but human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity uveitis had increased (29.83% vs. 14.5%; P < 0.05). Intermediate uveitis was the second-most common type instead of posterior uveitis (P = 0.0006). In posterior uveitis cases, etiology was established in 88.6% versus 56.06% cases (P < 0.05). The most common cause of posterior uveitis was tuberculosis (TB) (35.2%). Viral retinitis had increased to 6.81% from 0.76% (P < 0.05). However, a declining trend in cases of toxoplasmosis was observed (P = 0.0545). The cause of panuveitis was comparable in both studies. The prevalence of TB has significantly increased in the present era (22.5% vs. 0.64%; P < 0.0001) and was the proven etiological cause of uveitis in overall 22.5% of which 4.8% cases were of anterior uveitis cases, 7.1% cases of intermediate uveitis cases, 8.8% cases of posterior uveitis cases, and 1.8% of panuveitis cases.

Conclusion: A shifting paradigm of uveitis over the past two decades was observed.

Keywords: Changing pattern; South India; retinitis; toxoplasmosis; tuberculosis; uveitis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Eye Infections, Viral / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Retinitis / virology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / epidemiology
  • Uveitis / classification
  • Uveitis / diagnosis
  • Uveitis / epidemiology*
  • Young Adult