Evolution of Diabetes Care in Hong Kong: From the Hong Kong Diabetes Register to JADE-PEARL Program to RAMP and PEP Program

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2018 Mar;33(1):17-32. doi: 10.3803/EnM.2018.33.1.17.


The rapid increase in diabetes prevalence globally has contributed to large increases in health care expenditure on diabetic complications, posing a major health burden to countries worldwide. Asians are commonly observed to have poorer β-cell function and greater insulin resistance compared to the Caucasian population, which is attributed by their lower lean body mass and central obesity. This "double phenotype" as well as the rising prevalence of young onset diabetes in Asia has placed Asians with diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular and renal complications, with cancer emerging as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The experience from Hong Kong had demonstrated that a multifaceted approach, involving team-based integrated care, information technological advances, and patient empowerment programs were able to reduce the incidence of diabetic complications, hospitalizations, and mortality. System change and public policies to enhance implementation of such programs may provide solutions to combat the burgeoning health problem of diabetes at a societal level.

Keywords: Diabetes complications; Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Integrated care.

Publication types

  • Review