Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: morbidity and postoperative outcomes

Minerva Chir. 2019 Jun;74(3):195-202. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4733.18.07649-6. Epub 2018 Mar 28.


Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) represents a treatment option for peritoneal surface malignancies. Even if it has been reported that this new approach improved survival of selected patients, it is still associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

Methods: From October 1995 to December 2017, over 450 patients affected by peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) underwent in our Institute CRS associated with HIPEC. For this preliminary analysis we considered 300 patients presenting PC of different origin: pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP, N.=98), epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, N.=87), peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM, N.=49) and colorectal cancer (CRC, N.=66). Postoperative morbidity and mortality were studied in order to identify possible risk factors.

Results: The morbidity rate was 36.3% in all procedures (109/300). According to the Clavien-Dindo Classification, 67 cases (22.3%) were associated with grade I-II complications and 35 cases (11.7%) with grade III-IV. Surgical and medical complication rates were 8.3% (25/300) and 11.3% (34/300), respectively. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Reoperation was needed in 28 patients (9.3%). The operative time, the number of anastomosis, of peritonectomy procedures, of visceral resections performed and the PCI value resulted the most statistically significant factors influencing postoperative morbidity and mortality.

Conclusions: The risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality after CRS and HIPEC are analogous to any other major gastrointestinal surgery. CRS and HIPEC should remain a treatment option for highly-selected patients in whom a curative or life prolonging treatment is a pursuit and should be performed in high volume specialized institutions.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma / mortality
  • Carcinoma / therapy*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Colonic Neoplasms / therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Combined Modality Therapy / mortality
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects*
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / methods
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / mortality
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • Male
  • Mesothelioma / therapy
  • Mesothelioma, Malignant
  • Middle Aged
  • Operative Time
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Postoperative Complications / classification
  • Postoperative Complications / mortality
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / therapy
  • Reoperation / statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult