Myosin X is an unconventional actin-based molecular motor involved in filopodial formation, microtubule-actin filament interaction, and cell migration. Myosin X is an important component of filopodia regulation, localizing to tips of growing filopodia by an unclear targeting mechanism. The native α-helical dimerization domain of myosin X is thought to associate with antiparallel polarity of the two amino acid chains, making myosin X the only myosin that is currently considered to form antiparallel dimers. This study aims to determine if antiparallel dimerization of myosin X imparts selectivity toward actin bundles by comparing the motility of parallel and antiparallel dimers of myosin X on single and fascin-bundled actin filaments. Antiparallel myosin X dimers exhibit selective processivity on fascin-bundled actin and are only weakly processive on single actin filaments below saturating [ATP]. Artificial forced parallel dimers of myosin X are robustly processive on both single and bundled actin, exhibiting no selectivity. To determine the relationship between gating of the reaction steps and observed differences in motility, a mathematical model was developed to correlate the parameters of motility with the biochemical and mechanical kinetics of the dimer. Results from the model, constrained by experimental data, suggest that the probability of binding forward, toward the barbed end of the actin filament, is lower in antiparallel myosin X on single actin filaments compared to fascin-actin bundles and compared to constructs of myosin X with parallel dimerization.
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