Patterns of acute bilirubin encephalopathy in Nigeria: a multicenter pre-intervention study

J Perinatol. 2018 Jul;38(7):873-880. doi: 10.1038/s41372-018-0094-y. Epub 2018 Mar 28.


Background: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) is an important cause of neonatal morbidity in Nigeria, accounting for 5-14% of neonatal deaths. Most newborns with severe ABE have irreversible damage before receiving treatment emphasizing the need for timely pre-admission monitoring and referral. There is limited evidence that educational interventions targeting mothers and health care providers will reduce delayed care.

Objective: To provide baseline data on the incidence of ABE and associated pre-admission risk factors in five centers of Nigeria in order to evaluate the effect of subsequent educational interventions on outcome.

Study design: The incidence of ABE among newborns treated for hyperbilirubinemia was documented prospectively. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate risk factors for acute bilirubin encephalopathy and reasons for regional differences in its occurrence.

Results: Of 1040 infants, 159 treated for hyperbilirubinemia (15.3%) had mild to severe bilirubin encephalopathy (including 35 deaths), but the incidence ranged from 7 to 22% between centers. Logistic regression identified four common predictors: total serum bilirubin (odds ratio 1.007 per mg/dl rise), out-of-hospital births (OR 2.6), non-alloimmune hemolytic anemia (OR 2.8), and delayed care seeking (OR 4.3).

Conclusion: The high occurrence of bilirubin encephalopathy in Nigeria is due in large part to a delay in seeking care. A planned intervention strategy will target conditions leading to severe hyperbilirubinemia and delay.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Cohort Studies
  • Delayed Diagnosis / adverse effects
  • Developing Countries
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality / trends
  • Humans
  • Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal / complications*
  • Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal / diagnosis
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant Mortality / trends*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kernicterus / epidemiology*
  • Kernicterus / etiology
  • Kernicterus / physiopathology
  • Kernicterus / therapy*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index