1. Plasma concentration and atrial content of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were measured in rats with chronic renal failure induced by subtotal nephrectomy. 2. Plasma ANF was higher, and atrial ANF content lower in rats with renal failure when compared with sham-operated controls. 3. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and ANF were elevated at 1 week following subtotal nephrectomy. After 1 month plasma ANF had risen further, but PRA was suppressed to below control values. 4. Plasma ANF was also measured in six patients with chronic renal failure undergoing routine haemodialysis. 5. Elevated plasma ANF levels in patients with renal failure were lowered by haemodialysis, although extraction of ANF across the dialysis membrane was negligible. 6. Secretion of ANF is increased in chronic renal failure in man and the rat, possibly mediated by increased intravascular volume.