Aberrant cell survival plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously shown that ezrin, a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A-anchoring protein (AKAP), is up-regulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis. Phosphorylation of ezrin at Thr-567 activates ezrin and plays an important role in CRC cell survival associated with XIAP and survivin up-regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that in FET and GEO colon cancer cells, knockdown of ezrin expression or inhibition of ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567 increases apoptosis through protein kinase A (PKA) activation in a cAMP-independent manner. Transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling inhibits ezrin phosphorylation in a Smad3-dependent and Smad2-independent manner and regulates pro-apoptotic function through ezrin-mediated PKA activation. On the other hand, ezrin phosphorylation at Thr-567 by insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling leads to cAMP-dependent PKA activation and enhances cell survival. Further studies indicate that phosphorylated ezrin forms a complex with PKA RII, and dephosphorylated ezrin dissociates from the complex and facilitates the association of PKA RII with AKAP149, both of which activate PKA yet lead to either cell survival or apoptosis. Thus, our studies reveal a novel mechanism of differential PKA activation mediated by TGFβ and IGF1R signaling through regulation of ezrin phosphorylation in CRC, resulting in different cell fates. This is of significance because TGFβ and IGF1R signaling pathways are well-characterized tumor suppressor and oncogenic pathways, respectively, with important roles in CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. Our studies indicate that they cross-talk and antagonize each other's function through regulation of ezrin activation. Therefore, ezrin may be a potential therapeutic target in CRC.
Keywords: A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP); IGF1R; Smad3; X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP); apoptosis; colon cancer; ezrin; metastasis; survivin; transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β).
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