MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a broad class of non-coding RNAs nearly 21 nucleotides length, which play crucial functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation. These molecules are associated with many developmental and cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Current investigation has reported major factors contributing to miRNA biogenesis and has constituted basic principles of miRNA function. More recently, it was confirmed that various miRNAs are clearly implicated in human malignancies, such as lung, breast, ovarian, bladder, colon cancer and other kinds of carcinoma. In addition, dysregulation in the miRNA machinery elements such as Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8, Argonaut, and TRBP could be involved in the progress of many tumor types. The purpose of the current review was to compile growing information besides how miRNA biogenesis and gene silencing are modified to develop cancer.