Brugia Malayi Infection in Ferrets - A Small Mammal Model of Lymphatic Filariasis

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Mar 30;12(3):e0006334. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006334. eCollection 2018 Mar.


Background: The lack of effective short-course therapies for treatment of the adult stage of filarial worms is a major limitation in the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Studies using current small mammal models of lymphatic filariasis are limited by difficulties in quantifying adult worm numbers and in assessing lymphatic anatomy and function.

Methodology/principal findings: Here, we re-established Brugia malayi infection of ferrets as a model for lymphatic filariasis and demonstrated parasitological, immunological, and histological parallels with human infection. Subcutaneous injection of L3 larvae into a hind-footpad resulted in a mean of 18 adult worms recovered 16 weeks post-infection, primarily from the draining inguinal and femoral lymphatics of the injected limb. Infected ferrets developed microfilaremia, with patency lasting from 12-26 weeks post-infection. Quantitative PCR assessing cytokine transcription by antigen-stimulated lymph node cells demonstrated a mixed Th1/Th2 response occurring during early infection. Immunoregulation with production of down-regulatory cytokine IL-10 occurred just prior to peak microfilaremia. Histological analysis revealed progressive inflammation of the lymphatic vessel walls, with intimal thickening and disorganization of collagen fibers. Inflammation was observed as early as 8 weeks post-infection and extended into the perivascular and subcutaneous tissues by 16 weeks post-infection. Finally, we developed a novel ferret PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy method demonstrating substantial changes in lymphatic anatomy and function as early as 3 weeks post-infection, with progression over the course of infection.

Conclusions/significance: B. malayi infection of ferrets is a robust model of human lymphatic filariasis that can be utilized to study efficacy of novel antifilarial agents against adult worms residing within lymphatic vessels. In conjunction with PET/CT lymphoscintigraphy, this model can also be used to investigate pathogenesis of lymphatic dysfunction in lymphatic filariasis and efficacy of medications aimed at reversing lymphatic dysfunction after clearance of adult worms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / therapeutic use
  • Brugia malayi*
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Drug Discovery
  • Elephantiasis, Filarial / drug therapy
  • Elephantiasis, Filarial / immunology*
  • Female
  • Ferrets / parasitology*
  • Larva
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology*
  • Lymphoscintigraphy
  • Male
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography


  • Anthelmintics

Grant support

This study was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation under grant #OPP1084235 (, and The Uniformed Services University Center for Global Health Engagement under grant #HU0001-17-2-0077. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.