Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP) are conditions presenting overlapping clinical features during early stages (first 4 weeks), although the latter may progress after 8 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify predictive factors contributing to their differential diagnosis. Clinical records of adult patients with AIDP or A-CIDP diagnosed at our institution between January 2006 and July 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) findings, treatment and clinical evolution were analyzed. Nerve conduction studies were performed in all patients with at least 12 months follow-up. A total of 91 patients were included (AIDP, n = 77; A-CIDP, n = 14). The median age was 55.5 years in patients with A-CIDP vs 43 years in AIDP (P = .07). The history of diabetes mellitus was more frequent in A-CIDP (29% vs 8%, P = .04). No significant differences between groups were observed with respect to: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, presence of auto-immune disorder or oncologic disease. Cranial, motor and autonomic nerve involvement rates were similar in both groups. Patients in the A-CIDP group showed higher frequency of proprioceptive disturbances (83% vs 28%; P < .001), sensory ataxia (46% vs 16%; P = .01), and the use of combined immunotherapy with corticoids (29% vs 3%; P = .005). There were no significant differences in CSF findings, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or mortality rates. During the first 8 weeks both entities are practically indistinguishable. Alterations in proprioception could suggest A-CIDP. Searching for markers that allow early differentiation could favor the onset of corticotherapy without delay.
Keywords: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS); acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP); diabetes mellitus.
© 2018 Peripheral Nerve Society.