Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2018 Jul;164:507-515.
doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.031. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Metabolites of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants in Urine From Shanghai, China


Metabolites of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants in Urine From Shanghai, China

Yan Sun et al. Environ Res. .


The metabolites of nine organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants were measured in 180 urine samples collected from a population (including adults and children) in western Shanghai, China, using liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total urinary concentrations of nine OPE metabolites ranged 100-23800 pg/mL, with a geometric mean (GM) value of 1450 pg/mL. The concentrations of alkyl-OPE metabolites (879 pg/mL) were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those of aryl-OPE (53.7 pg/mL) and chlorinated-OPE metabolites (52.7 pg/mL). Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP), and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) were the dominant OPE metabolites found in urine. The results showed that an increase in age was associated with a significant decrease in urinary DPHP (r = -0.278, p < 0.01) and DNBP (r = -0.314, p < 0.01) concentrations. The highest concentrations of DPHP (GM = 80.7 pg/mL) and DNBP (GM = 16.9 pg/mL) were found in urine from people living in homes that were less than 10 years old. The urinary DNBP concentration was significantly associated with self-reported symptoms of allergy. Our result establishes baseline value for OPE exposure in a population in China for comparison in future studies.

Keywords: Biomarkers; Human exposure; Organophosphate ester metabolites; Urine.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles

Publication types

LinkOut - more resources