HIV infection and stroke

Handb Clin Neurol. 2018:152:187-200. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63849-6.00015-3.


The landscape of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is changing with the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients are living longer but continually exposed to a virologically suppressed HIV infection. This has resulted in a decrease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complications such as opportunistic infections, and an increase in non-AIDS complications such as stroke. In this era, stroke is perhaps the most important neurologic complication of HIV infection. Furthermore, stroke is more of a heterogeneous disease in people living with HIV infection and therefore needs to be approached systematically. Many of the etiologies are treatable. HIV-associated vasculopathy is perhaps the most common etiology in this population and our understanding of this is still evolving. Moreover, the treatment of HIV infection may contribute to an excess risk of stroke and interact with stroke therapies.

Keywords: ART; HIV-associated vasculopathy; cardiovascular disease; cerebrovascular disease; drug–drug interactions; immune reconstitution syndrome; stroke; vasculitis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System / diagnosis*
  • AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System / epidemiology*
  • AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System / therapy
  • Animals
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • Cohort Studies
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • HIV Infections / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Stroke / diagnosis*
  • Stroke / epidemiology*
  • Stroke / therapy


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors