Introduction: Results of kidney transplantation have been improving but long-term allograft survival remains disappointing. The objective of the present study was to identify the specific causes of renal allograft loss, to assess their incidence and long-term outcomes.
Methods: A total of 4783 patients from four French centres, transplanted between January 2004 and January 2014 were prospectively included. A total of 9959 kidney biopsies (protocol and for cause) performed between January 2004 and March 2015 were included. Donor and recipient clinical and biological parameters as well as anti-HLA antibody directed against the donor were included. The main outcome was the long-term kidney allograft survival, including the study of the associated causes of graft loss, the delay of graft loss according to their causes and the determinants of graft loss.
Results: There were 732 graft losses during the follow-up period (median time: 4.51 years) with an identified cause in 95.08 %. Kidney allograft survival at 9 years post-transplant was 78 %. The causes of allograft loss were: antibody-mediated rejection (31.69 %), thrombosis (25.55 %), medical intercurrent disease (14.62 %), recurrence of primary renal disease (7.1 %), BK- or CMV-associated nephropathy (n=35, 4.78 %), T cell-mediated rejection (4.78 %), urological disease (2.46 %) and calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity (1.09 %).
Conclusion: The main causes of allograft loss were antibody-mediated rejection and thrombosis. These results encourage efforts to prevent and detect these complications earlier in order to improve allograft survival.
Keywords: Allograft failure; Antibody-mediated rejection; Dysfonction du greffon; Kidney transplantation; Long-term allograft survival; Rejet médié par les anticorps; Survie du greffon; Transplantation rénale.
Copyright © 2018 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.