Introduction and objectives: To assess the effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants vs vitamin K antagonists in real-life patients with atrial fibrillation.
Methods: A systematic review was performed according to Cochrane methodological standards. The results were reported according to the PRISMA statement. The ROBINS-I tool was used to assess risk of bias.
Results: A total of 27 different studies publishing data in 30 publications were included. In the studies with a follow-up up to 1 year, apixaban (HR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.71-1.20) and dabigatran (HR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.80-1.13) did not significantly reduce the risk of ischemic stroke vs warfarin, whereas rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk (HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.73-0.94). Apixaban (HR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.55-0.80) and dabigatran (HR, 0.83; 95%CI, 0.70-0.97) significantly reduced the major bleeding risk vs warfarin, but not rivaroxaban (HR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.95-1.10), although with a high statistical heterogeneity among studies. Apixaban (HR, 0.56; 95%CI, 0.42-0.73), dabigatran (HR, 0.45; 95%CI, 0.39-0.51), and rivaroxaban (HR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.49-0.88) significantly reduced the risk of intracranial bleeding vs warfarin. Reduced doses of direct oral anticoagulants were associated with a slightly better safety profile, but with a marked reduction in stroke prevention effectiveness.
Conclusions: Data from this meta-analysis suggest that, vs warfarin, the stroke prevention effectiveness and bleeding risk of direct oral anticoagulants may differ in real-life patients with atrial fibrillation.
Keywords: Anticoagulantes orales directos; Apixaban; Apixabán; Atrial fibrillation; Clinical practice; Dabigatran; Dabigatrán; Direct oral anticoagulants; Fibrilación auricular; Meta-analysis; Metanálisis; Práctica clínica; Rivaroxaban; Rivaroxabán; Warfarin; Warfarina.
Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.