Background: Bee venom (BV) has been widely investigated for potential medical uses. Recent inadvertent uses of BV based products have shown to mitigate signs of fungal infections. However, the component mediating the antifungal effect has not been identified.
Objective: This investigation compares bee venom in its whole and partial forms to evaluate the possible component responsible for the antifungal effect.
Methods: Forty-eight plates inoculated with Trichophyton rubrum were allocated into four groups. The groups were treated with raw BV (RBV), melittin, apamin and BV based mist (BBM) respectively and each group was further allocated accordingly to three different concentrations. The areas were measured every other day for 14 days to evaluate the kinetic changes of the colonies.
Results: The interactions of ratio differences over interval were confirmed in groups treated with RBV and BBM. In RBV, the level of differences were achieved in groups treated with 10 mg/100 µl (p=0.026) and 40 mg/100 µl (p=0.000). The mean difference of ratio in groups treated with RBV was evident in day 3 and day 5. The groups that were treated with melittin or apamin did not show any significant interaction. In BBM groups, the significant levels of ratio differences over time intervals were achieved in groups treated with 200 µl/100 µl (p=0.000) and 300 µl/100 µl (p=0.030).
Conclusion: The the bee venom in its whole form delivered a significant level of inhibition and we concluded that the venom in separated forms are not effective. Moreover, BV based products may exert as potential antifungal therapeutics.
Keywords: Antifungal agents; Apamin; Bee venoms; Melitten; Trichophyton.