Diabetes is a fast growing chronic metabolic disorder around the world. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a new promising target during type 2 diabetes glycemic control. Thus, a number of potent DPP-4 inhibitors were developed and play a rapidly evolving role in the management of type 2 diabetes in recent years. This article reviews the development of synthetic and natural DPP-4 inhibitors from 2012 to 2017 and provides their physico-chemical properties, biological activities against DPP-4 and selectivity over dipeptidyl peptidase-8/9. Moreover, the glucose-lowering mechanisms and the active site of DPP-4 are also discussed. We also discuss strategies and structure-activity relationships for identifying potent DPP-4 inhibitors, which will provide useful information for developing potent DPP-4 drugs as type 2 diabtes treatments.
Keywords: Analogs; DPP-4; Inhibitors; Physico-chemical properties; SARs; Type 2 diabetes.
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