The evolutionary history of the stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) and its genetic relationship to other macaques is a subject of continuing controversy. Here, we have reported the first genome sequences of two stump-tailed macaques and one Assamese macaque (M. assamensis). Additionally, we have investigated the genetic diversity between macaque species and analyzed ancient hybridization events. Genome-wide analyses demonstrated that the stump-tailed macaque is more closely related to sinica species than to fascicularis/mulatta species. This topology contradicts the mitochondrial sequence-based phylogeny that places the stump-tailed macaque into the fascicularis/mulatta group. However, our results further show that stump-tailed macaques have genetic backgrounds distinct from sinica species, and present evidence of gene flows with rhesus macaques. We suggest that an ancient introgression occurred after stump-tailed macaques diverged from sinica species. The distinct gene flow between proto-arctoides and proto-mulatta resulted in the transfer of rhesus macaque-type mitochondria into proto-arctoides. The rhesus macaque-type mitochondria remained in populations because of genetic drift during the bottleneck. The PSMC results and morphological and geographic evidence are consistent with the mitochondria capture pattern in the stump-tailed macaque. The molecular clock estimates suggest that the mitochondrial transference into stump-tailed macaques occurred 0.4-1.4 million years ago. Furthermore, we detected extensive admixtures between different macaque species, indicating that gene flow has played an important role in the evolutionary history of the genus Macaca.
Keywords: Genetic diversity; Genome evolution; Hybridization; Primate.
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