Characterization of centriole duplication in human epidermis, Bowen's disease, and squamous cell carcinoma

J Dermatol Sci. 2018 Jul;91(1):9-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jdermsci.2018.03.008. Epub 2018 Mar 16.


Background: Centrosomes contain two centrioles: a pre-existing mature centriole and a newly formed immature centriole. Each centriole is duplicated once within a cell cycle, which is crucial for proper centrosome duplication and cell division.

Objective: To describe the centrosome duplication cycle in human epidermis, Bowen's disease (BD), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Methods: Immunofluorescent staining of centriolar proteins and Ki-67 was used to evaluate cell cycles and the number of centrioles. Centrobin and Outer dense fiber of sperm tails 2 (ODF2) were used as markers for immature and mature centrioles, respectively.

Results: Normal human primary epidermal keratinocytes in a monolayered culture have one centrobin+ centriole (CTRB1+ cells) supposed in G0/G1 phases or have two centrobin+ centrioles (CTRB2+ cells) supposed in S-G2 phase. In a three-dimensional culture and in vivo human epidermis, the majority of suprabasal cells were CTRB2+ cells, in spite of their non-proliferative Ki-67- nature. The tumor mass of BD and SCC contained CTRB1+ cells and Ki-67+ proliferating and Ki-67- non-proliferative CTRB2+ cells. Clumping cells in BD had increased numbers of centrioles, with an approximate 1:1 to 2:1 ratio of centrobin+ to ODF2+ centrioles.

Conclusions: The cell cycle arrest of suprabasal cells is distinct from the G0 arrest of monolayered epithelial cells. Tumor mass of BD and SCC contained non-proliferative cells with the characteristics of the suprabasal cells of normal epidermis. A constant ratio of the number of centrobin+ to ODF2+ centrioles indicates that multiple centrioles were induced by cell division failure rather than centriole overduplication in clumping cells.

Keywords: Bowen's disease; Cell cycle; Centriole; Centrosome; Clumping cells.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bowen's Disease / pathology*
  • Bowen's Disease / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery
  • Cell Cycle / physiology
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis
  • Cell Division / physiology
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Centrioles / metabolism
  • Centrioles / pathology*
  • Epidermal Cells
  • Epidermis / physiology*
  • Epithelial Cells / cytology
  • Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • Heat-Shock Proteins / analysis
  • Humans
  • Keratinocytes
  • Ki-67 Antigen / analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Primary Cell Culture
  • Skin Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • Young Adult


  • CNTROB protein, human
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • ODF2 protein, human