Purpose: Evaluation of the phenotype of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), adherence to International Guidelines for parathyroidectomy (PTx), and rate of surgical cure.
Method: From January 2014-January 2016, we performed a prospective, multicenter study in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Biochemical and instrumental data were collected at baseline and during 1-year follow-up.
Results: Over the first year we enrolled 604 patients (age 61 ± 14 years), mostly women (83%), referred for further evaluation and treatment advice. Five hundred sixty-six patients had sporadic PHPT (93.7%, age 63 ± 13 years), the remaining 38 (6.3%, age 41 ± 17 years) had familial PHPT. The majority of patients (59%) were asymptomatic. Surgery was advised in 281 (46.5%). Follow-up data were available in 345 patients. Eighty-seven of 158 (55.1%) symptomatic patients underwent PTx. Sixty-five (53.7%) of 121 asymptomatic patients with at least one criterion for surgery underwent PTx and 56 (46.3%) were followed without surgery. Negative parathyroid imaging studies predicted a conservative approach [symptomatic PHPT: OR 18.0 (95% CI 4.2-81.0) P < 0.001; asymptomatic PHPT: OR 10.8, (95% CI 3.1-37.15) P < 0.001). PTx was also performed in 16 of 66 (25.7%) asymptomatic patients without surgical criteria. Young age, serum calcium concentration, 24 h urinary calcium, positive parathyroid imaging (either ultrasound or MIBI scan positive in 75% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.001) were predictors of parathyroid surgery. Almost all (94%) of patients were cured by PTx.
Conclusions: Italian endocrinologists do not follow guidelines for the management of PHPT. Negative parathyroid imaging studies are strong predictors of a non-surgical approach. PTx is successful in almost all patients.
Keywords: Parathyroid adenoma; Parathyroid imaging; Parathyroidectomy; Serum calcium.