Conjugation of Specifically Developed Antibodies for High- and Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenins with Fluorescent Quantum Dots as a Tool for Their Detection in Wheat Flour Dough

J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Apr 25;66(16):4259-4266. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05711. Epub 2018 Apr 11.


The importance of gluten proteins, gliadins and glutenins, is well-known in the quality of wheat products. To gain more specific information about the role of glutenins in wheat dough, the two major subunits of glutenin, high- and low-molecular-weight (HMW and LMW) glutenins, were extracted, isolated, and identified by mass spectrometry. Antibodies for HMW and LMW glutenins were developed using the proteomic information on the characterized glutenin subunits. The antibodies were found to be specific to each subunit by western immunoblots and were then conjugated to quantum dots (QDs) using site-click conjugation, a new method to keep antibody integrity. A fluorescence-link immunosorbent assay tested the successful QD conjugation. The QD-conjugated antibodies were applied to dough samples, where they recognized glutenin subunits and were visualized using a confocal laser scanning microscope.

Keywords: HMW glutenin; LMW glutenin; antibodies; quantum dots; site-click conjugation.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / chemistry*
  • Bread / analysis
  • Flour / analysis*
  • Fluorescence
  • Glutens / chemistry*
  • Immunoassay / instrumentation
  • Immunoassay / methods*
  • Molecular Weight
  • Proteomics
  • Quantum Dots / chemistry*
  • Rabbits
  • Triticum / chemistry*


  • Antibodies
  • Glutens
  • glutenin