Background: Few authors have directly compared multiple types of lateralizing calcaneal osteotomies (LCOs) in terms of their ability to achieve deformity correction. The aim of this research was to use a digital model of a varus hindfoot to compare 4 different LCOs in terms of deformity correction and amount of tuberosity lateralization required. The authors hypothesis was that osteotomies involving a wedge resection would achieve greater correction with less lateralization.
Methods: A weightbearing computed tomographic scan of a patient with a varus hindfoot deformity was used to construct a 3-dimensional digital model of the hindfoot, preserving weightbearing alignment. Four different LCOs were modeled: a standard oblique osteotomy, a Dwyer osteotomy, a modified Dwyer osteotomy involving lateralization in addition to wedge resection, and a Malerba Z-type osteotomy with wedge resection and lateralization. Incremental corrections were performed with each osteotomy type, and amount of correction was assessed with a vertical hindfoot angle and measurement of the lateral translation of the most inferior aspect of the calcaneus. Calcaneal length and osteotomy contact surface area were also measured.
Results: The modified Dwyer osteotomy led to the greatest improvements in the vertical hindfoot angle and lateral translation, followed by the Malerba osteotomy. The standard and Malerba osteotomies allowed the most preservation of calcaneal length; the Malerba and Dwyer osteotomies had the greatest contact surface area.
Conclusion: LCOs that involve wedge resection as well as lateralization were able to achieve the greatest correction of hindfoot varus.
Clinical relevance: For the surgical treatment of cavovarus foot deformities, osteotomies with wedge resection in addition to lateralization enable more powerful correction.
Keywords: calcaneal osteotomy; cavovarus foot; lateralizing calcaneal osteotomy; varus hindfoot.