Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) released from gut enteroendocrine cells controls meal-related glycemic excursions through augmentation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion. GLP-1 also inhibits gastric emptying and food intake, actions maximizing nutrient absorption while limiting weight gain. Here I review the circuits engaged by endogenous versus pharmacological GLP-1 action, highlighting key GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R)-positive cell types and pathways transducing metabolic and non-glycemic GLP-1 signals. The role(s) of GLP-1 in the benefits and side effects associated with bariatric surgery are discussed and actions of GLP-1 controlling islet function, appetite, inflammation, and cardiovascular pathophysiology are highlighted. Refinement of the risk-versus-benefit profile of GLP-1-based therapies for the treatment of diabetes and obesity has stimulated development of orally bioavailable agonists, allosteric modulators, and unimolecular multi-agonists, all targeting the GLP-1R. This review highlights established and emerging concepts, unanswered questions, and future challenges for development and optimization of GLP-1R agonists in the treatment of metabolic disease.
Keywords: G protein-coupled receptor; body weight; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; drug; hypertension; incretin; inflammation; metabolism; obesity.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.