Background: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) may be higher in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (PHIV) than HIV-uninfected (HU) adolescents because of long-standing immune deficiency.
Methods: PHIV and HU females aged 12-24 years in Thailand and Vietnam were matched by age group and lifetime sexual partners. At enrollment, blood, cervical, vaginal, anal, and oral samples were obtained for HPV-related testing. The Wilcoxon and Fisher exact tests were used for univariate and logistic regression for multivariate analyses.
Results: Ninety-three PHIV and 99 HU adolescents (median age 19 [18-20] years) were enrolled (June 2013-July 2015). Among PHIV, 94% were currently receiving antiretroviral therapy, median CD4 count was 593 (392-808) cells/mm3, and 62% had a viral load <40 copies/mL. Across anogenital compartments, PHIV had higher rates of any HPV detected (80% vs 60%; P = .003) and any HR-HPV (60% vs 43%, P = .02). Higher proportions of PHIV had abnormal Pap smears (eg, atypical squamous cells of unknown significance [ASC-US], 12% vs 14%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplastic lesions, 19% vs 1%). After adjusting for ever being pregnant and asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STI) at enrollment, PHIV were more likely to have HR-HPV than HU (odds ratio, 2.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.77; P = .03).
Conclusions: Perinatal HIV infection was associated with a higher risk of HR-HPV and abnormal cervical cytology. Our results underscore the need for HPV vaccination for PHIV adolescents and for prevention and screening programs for HPV and other STIs.