Peripheral Changes Associated With Delayed Dark Adaptation in Age-related Macular Degeneration

Am J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jun;190:113-124. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2018.03.035. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Abstract

Purpose: To study the association between peripheral changes in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and dark adaptation (DA).

Design: Prospective, cross-sectional study.

Methods: We recruited patients with AMD and a control group (>50 years) without any vitreoretinal disease. Ultra-widefield (UWF) pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) were obtained, and were assessed by 2 graders for the presence of several peripheral changes in perimacular, midperipheral, and far-peripheral zones. All participants were also imaged with 7-field color fundus photographs used for AMD staging (Age-Related Eye Disease Study classification system). Both eyes of study participants were tested with a dark adaptation (DA) extended protocol (20 minutes). Multilevel mixed-effect models (accounting for correlated outcomes between 2 eyes) were used for analyses.

Results: We included 128 eyes (n = 72 patients), 75% with AMD and the remainder controls. The presence of reticular pigmentary changes in the midperipheral (ß = 4.3, P = .012) and far-peripheral zones (ß = 8.4, P < .001) was associated with delayed rod-intercept times (RITs), even after adjusting for confounding factors. The presence, number, and extent of peripheral classic drusen did not show a similar association (P ≥ .148). The presence of a mottled decreased FAF pattern in the midperipheral zone was also associated with prolonged RITs (β = 4.4, P = .031).

Conclusion: Our results suggest an association between DA and the presence of peripheral reticular pigmentary changes, as well as the presence of a peripheral mottled decreased FAF pattern. This provides new insights on the clinical significance of peripheral changes in AMD, and their contribution to impairments on DA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dark Adaptation / physiology*
  • Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / diagnostic imaging
  • Macular Degeneration / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Optical Imaging
  • Photography
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retina / diagnostic imaging
  • Retina / physiopathology*
  • Retinal Drusen / physiopathology
  • Retinal Pigment Epithelium / pathology
  • Visual Acuity