Of background data: The ability to rise from a chair is a basic functional task that is frequently compromised in individuals diagnosed with orthopedic disorders in the low back and hip. There is no published literature that describes how this task is altered by sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD).
Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare lower extremity biomechanics and the onset of muscle activity when rising from a chair in subjects with SIJD and in healthy persons.
Study design: Six women with unilateral SIJD and six age-matched healthy controls performed a sit-to-stand task while we measured kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity.
Materials and methods: Subjects stood up at a preferred speed from a seated position on an armless and backless adjustable stool. We measured kinematics with a 10-camera motion capture system, ground reaction forces for each leg with force plates, and muscle activity with surface electromyography. Joint angles and torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. Leg-loading rate was quantified as the average slope of vertical ground reaction (VGRF) force during the 500-millisecond interval preceding maximal knee extension.
Results: Between-leg differences in loading rates and peak VGRFs were significantly greater for the SIJD group than for the control group. Maximal hip angles were significantly less for the SIJD group (p=.001). Peak hip moment in the SIJD group was significantly greater in the unaffected leg (0.75±0.22 N⋅m/kg) than in the affected leg (0.47±0.29 N⋅m/kg, p=.005). There were no between-leg or between-group differences for peak knee or ankle moments. The onset of activity in the latissimus dorsi muscle on the affected side was delayed and the erector spinae muscles were activated earlier in the SIJD group than in the control group.
Conclusions: Subjects with SIJD have a greater VGRF on the unaffected leg, generate a greater peak hip moment in the unaffected leg, use a smaller range of motion at the hip joint of the affected leg, and delay the onset of a key muscle on the affected side when rising from a seated position.
Keywords: Biomechanics; Electromyography; Joint loading; Kinematics; Muscle onset timing; Sacroiliac joint.
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