Objective: Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ≥6 years, adolescents, and adults. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence and risk of dystonia in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine was compared to a propensity score-matched cohort of stimulant users.
Methods: Data between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014 from patients aged 6-17 years in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database were used to generate two cohorts of patients: (1) atomoxetine users and (2) stimulant (methylphenidates or amphetamines) users. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare incidence of dystonia across propensity score-matched cohorts.
Results: Of the 70,657 atomoxetine users, 70,655 users were propensity score-matched to a stimulant user. In the atomoxetine- and stimulant-treated cohorts, the crude incidence rates of dystonia were 54.9 (95% CI: 27.1-82.7) and 77.9 (95% CI: 49.1-106.8) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The hazard ratio for occurrence of dystonia with atomoxetine use relative to stimulant use was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.36 - 1.28; P = 0.23).
Conclusion: In this large retrospective cohort study, there was no significant difference in incidence or risk of dystonia among patients treated with atomoxetine compared to stimulants.
Keywords: ADHD; Atomoxetine hydrochloride; attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity; cohort studies; dystonia; retrospective studies.