Background: To compare the symptom patterns of major depressive disorder (MDD) among subjects with MDD and 1) no alcohol use disorder (AUD), 2) alcohol abuse and 3) alcohol dependence, respectively.
Methods: In a general population survey of 38,694 French individuals, MDD and AUDs were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0.0 (MINI). A total of 4339 subjects (11.2%) in the sample met the criteria for MDD. Among them, 413 (9.5%) AUD subjects were identified: 138 (3.2%) for alcohol abuse and 275 (6.3%) for alcohol dependence. The associations of each of the ten MDD criteria of the MINI and psychiatric clinical features were compared among the three groups. The relative profiles of 'MDD + AUD' vs. 'MDD alone' were determined using a multivariable stepwise regression model.
Results: With the noAUD group as the reference, sadness (OR = 0.46; 95%CI, 0.29-0.74) and anhedonia (OR = 1.66; 95%CI, 1.06-2.73) were only associated with alcohol abuse. Sleep disorders (OR = 2.07; 95%CI, 1.51-2.88), feelings of guilt (OR = 1.41; 95%CI, 1.05-1.90), diminished concentration/indecisiveness (OR = 1.52; 95%CI, 1.12-2.07) and thoughts of death (OR = 1.95; 95%CI 1.49-2.55) were only associated with alcohol dependence. Weight or appetite variations were both associated with alcohol abuse (OR = 1.7; 95%CI, 1.15-2.53) and dependence (OR = 1.41; 95%CI, 1.06-1.88). Bipolar disorder and PTSD were only associated with alcohol dependence. Psychotic features, previous suicide attempts, and panic disorder were more frequent in the MDD-AUD group.
Conclusion: MDD-AUD subjects displayed a more severe profile with specific symptomatology and comorbidity profiles compared to MDD-only subjects.
Keywords: Alcohol abuse; Alcohol dependence; Alcohol use disorder; Dual diagnosis; Epidemiology; Major depressive disorder.
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