Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and circulating CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans. CART expression was increased by fatty acids and GIP, but unaffected by glucose in GLUTag and STC-1 cells. Exogenous CART had no effect on GIP and GLP-1 expression and secretion in GLUTag or STC-1 cells, but siRNA-mediated silencing of CART reduced GLP-1 expression and secretion. Furthermore, acute intravenous administration of CART increased GIP and GLP-1 secretion during an oral glucose-tolerance test in mice. We conclude that CART is a novel constituent of human K- and L-cells with stimulatory actions on incretin secretion and that interfering with the CART system may be a therapeutic avenue for T2D.
Keywords: CART; Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript; Enteroendocrine cells; GIP; GLP-1; Incretin hormones.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.