G Protein Coupled Receptor 109A (GPR109A), which belongs to the G protein coupled receptor family, can be activated by niacin, butyrate, and β-hydroxybutyric acid. Here, we assessed the anti-inflammatory activity of sodium butyrate (SB) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice, an experimental model that resembles Crohn's disease, and explored the potential mechanism of SB in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In vivo, experimental GPR109a-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were administered SB (5g/L) in their drinking water for 6weeks. The mice were then administered TNBS via rectal perfusion to imitate colitis. In vitro, RAW246.7 macrophages, Caco-2 cells, and primary peritoneal macrophages were used to investigate the protective roles of SB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response and epithelium barrier dysfunction. In vivo, SB significantly ameliorated the inflammatory response and intestinal epithelium barrier dysfunction in TNBS-induced WT mice, but failed to provide a protective effect in TNBS-induced GPR109a-/- mice. In vitro, pre-treatment with SB dramatically inhibited the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW246.7 macrophages. SB inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 and AKT signaling pathways, but failed to inhibit the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Our data indicated that SB ameliorated the TNBS-induced inflammatory response and intestinal epithelium barrier dysfunction through activating GPR109A and inhibiting the AKT and NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. These findings therefore extend the understanding of GPR109A receptor function and provide a new theoretical basis for treatment of IBD.
Keywords: Epithelium barrier; GPR109A; IBD; Inflammation; SB; TNBS.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.