Since preexisting immunity and enhanced infection rates in a clinical trial of an HIV vaccine have raised some concerns on adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5-based vaccines, we evaluated the subgroup D adenovirus serotype Ad19a for its suitability as novel viral vector vaccine against mucosal infections. In BALB/c mice, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of E1/E3-deleted Ad19a vectors encoding the influenza A virus (IAV)-derived antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleoprotein (NP) to the most commonly used Ad5 vectors. The adenoviral vectors were applied intranasally and induced detectable antigen-specific T cell responses in the lung and in the spleen as well as robust antibody responses. A prior DNA immunization significantly improved the immunogenicity of both vectors and resulted in full protection against a lethal infection with a heterologous H3N2 virus. Nevertheless, the Ad5-based vectors were slightly superior in reducing viral replication in the lung which corresponded to higher NP-specific T cell responses measured in the lungs.
Keywords: Ad19a; Ad5; Adenoviral vectors; Influenza A virus; Mucosal vaccines.
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