Survival strategy of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, to counteract koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, in soy sauce brewing

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2018 Aug;82(8):1437-1443. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2018.1460574. Epub 2018 Apr 8.


In soy sauce brewing, the results of the fermentation of lactic acid greatly affect the quality of soy sauce. The soy sauce moromi produced with Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 allows the growth of Tetragenococcus halophilus NBRC 12172 but not T. halophilus D10. We isolated and identified heptelidic acid (HA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), produced by A. oryzae RIB40 as the growth inhibitor of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria. The growth inhibition of T. halophilus D10 by HA was suggested to be associated with the direct inhibition of GAPDH activity under high salt environment. The difference in the susceptibility to HA among various strains of T. halophilus was caused by the mutations in the gene encoding GAPDH.

Keywords: GAPDH inhibitor; Soy sauce brewing; halo-tolerant lactic acid bacterium; heptelidic acid.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Aspergillus oryzae / enzymology
  • Aspergillus oryzae / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Fermentation
  • Food Industry
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / chemistry
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / genetics
  • Lactic Acid / metabolism*
  • Lactobacillales / drug effects
  • Lactobacillales / growth & development*
  • Lactobacillales / physiology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Salt Tolerance
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Sesquiterpenes / chemistry
  • Sesquiterpenes / isolation & purification
  • Sesquiterpenes / pharmacology
  • Soy Foods / microbiology*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Sesquiterpenes
  • Lactic Acid
  • heptelidic acid
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases