Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts from over 40% to 60% in non-cancer patients receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at the same time as the opioid to prevent OIC. Once the disorder is established, treatment involves both pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. OIC may present immediately when a patient takes the opioid, or it may present gradually during opioid therapy. In association with constipation, patients may also develop other GI side effects like nausea, vomiting, bloat, abdominal pain, and straining. Many patients who develop constipation following opioids stop the drug therapy because they simply cannot tolerate the adverse effects on the GI tract. Once constipation to opioids has developed, the relief with treatment is slow and does not always result in optimal relief from constipation.
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Treatment of Opioid-Induced Constipation: Focus on the Peripheral μ-Opioid Receptor Antagonist MethylnaltrexoneRL Rauck. Drugs 73 (12), 1297-306. PMID 23881667. - ReviewMost prescribed opioids exert their analgesic effects via activation of central μ-opioid receptors. However, μ-opioid receptors are also located in the gastrointestinal ( …
Definition, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies for Opioid-Induced Bowel dysfunction-Recommendations of the Nordic Working GroupAM Drewes et al. Scand J Pain 11, 111-122. PMID 28850449. - ReviewIt is the belief of this Nordic Working Group that increased awareness of adverse effects and OIBD, particularly OIC, will lead to better pain treatment in patients on op …
Non-analgesic Effects of Opioids: Management of Opioid-Induced Constipation by Peripheral Opioid Receptor Antagonists: Prevention or Withdrawal?P Holzer. Curr Pharm Des 18 (37), 6010-20. PMID 22747544.The therapeutic action of opioid analgesics is compromised by peripheral adverse effects among which opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most disabling, with a preva …
Opioids and GI Motility-Friend or Foe?AA Lee et al. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 14 (4), 478-494. PMID 27807793. - ReviewThe use of opioids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain is growing at an alarming rate. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) is a common adverse effect of long- …
Management of Opioid-Induced ConstipationD Prichard et al. Br J Nurs 25 (10), S4-5, S8-11. PMID 27231750. - ReviewUp to 40% of patients taking opioids develop constipation. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) may limit the adequate dosing of opioids for pain relief and reduce quality o …