Metabolism and Prebiotics Activity of Anthocyanins From Black Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) in Vitro

PLoS One. 2018 Apr 9;13(4):e0195754. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195754. eCollection 2018.


Anthocyanins are naturally active substances. In this study, anthocyanins from black rice were obtained by membrane filtration and column chromatography separation. Five anthocyanin monomers in black rice extract were identified by HPLC-MS/MS, and the major anthocyanin monomer (cyanidin-3-glucoside, C3G) was purified by preparative HPLC (Pre-HPLC). The proliferative effects of the anthocyanins on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were investigated by determining the media pH, bacterial populations and metabolic products. After anaerobic incubation at 37 °C for 48 h, not only the pH of the media containing C3G was lower than that of the extract of black rice anthocyanin (BRAE), but the numbers of both Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were also significantly increased. Furthermore, hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, and hydroxybenzoic acids and other metabolites were detected by GC-MS in vitro. Our results revealed that the anthocyanins and anthocyanin monomers from black rice had prebiotic activity and they were metabolized into several small molecules by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / isolation & purification
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology*
  • Bifidobacterium / drug effects
  • Bifidobacterium / growth & development*
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Lactobacillus / drug effects
  • Lactobacillus / growth & development*
  • Metabolome / drug effects*
  • Oryza / metabolism*
  • Prebiotics / analysis*


  • Anthocyanins
  • Prebiotics

Grant support

The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31771974, No. 31701524), the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No. 1708085MC70), the Autumn Project of Hefei University of Technology (No. JZ2015QSJH0217), and the 61th Financial Grant from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M611208). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.