Purpose: We evaluated the use of abiraterone acetate (1,000 mg) plus prednisone (5 mg) in patients with high risk, nonmetastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer.
Materials and methods: Patients considered at high risk for progression to metastatic disease (prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or greater, or prostate specific antigen doubling time 10 months or less) received abiraterone acetate plus prednisone daily in 28-day cycles. The primary study end point was the proportion of patients in whom a 50% or greater prostate specific antigen reduction was achieved during cycles 1 to 6. Secondary end points included time to prostate specific antigen progression, time to radiographic evidence of disease progression and safety.
Results: Of the 131 enrolled patients 44 (34%) remained on treatment with a median followup of 40.0 months. Median age was 72 years (range 48 to 90). Of the patients 82.4% were white and 14.5% were black. Median screening prostate specific antigen was 11.9 ng/dl and median prostate specific antigen doubling time was 3.4 months. Prostate specific antigen was significantly reduced (p <0.0001) with a 50% or greater prostate specific antigen reduction in 86.9% of cases and a 90% or greater reduction in 59.8%. Median time to prostate specific antigen progression was 28.7 months (95% CI 21.2-38.2). Median time to radiographic evidence of disease progression was not reached but on sensitivity analysis in 15 patients it was estimated to be 41.4 months (95% CI 27.6-not estimable). Baseline testosterone 12.5 ng/dl or greater and a 90% or greater prostate specific antigen reduction at cycle 3 were associated with longer time to prostate specific antigen progression and radiographic evidence of disease progression. Outcomes in black patients were similar to those in other patients. Adverse events, grade 3 or greater adverse events and serious adverse events were reported in 96.2%, 61.1% and 43.5% of patients, respectively.
Conclusions: In patients with high risk, nonmetastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer treatment with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone demonstrated a significant 50% or greater prostate specific antigen reduction with encouraging results for the secondary end points, including the safety of 5 mg prednisone.
Keywords: abiraterone acetate; adverse events; prednisone; prostate-specific antigen; prostatic neoplasms.
Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.