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. 2018 May;61:24-37.
doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.014. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Boredom: Under-aroused and Restless


Boredom: Under-aroused and Restless

James Danckert et al. Conscious Cogn. .


Boredom is a common experience associated with a range of negative outcomes. Debate remains as to whether boredom should be considered a high or low arousal state. We employed passages of text to induce either boredom or interest and probed self-reported levels of boredom, arousal, and restlessness. Results replicated known associations between mind-wandering and state boredom (i.e., mind-wandering was highest for the boredom mood induction). Reports of sleepiness (a proxy for arousal level) were highest for the boring induction. While restlessness was not different for the boring and interesting inductions when they were performed first, restlessness was significantly higher for the boredom induction when it was experienced last. We discuss these results within the context of the debate regarding boredom and arousal.

Keywords: Arousal; Attention; Boredom; Mind-wandering; Restlessness.

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