A commercial soy-based phospholipid emulsion accelerates clot formation in normal canine whole blood and induces hemolysis in whole blood from normal and dogs with inflammatory leukograms

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2018 May;28(3):252-260. doi: 10.1111/vec.12716. Epub 2018 Apr 6.


Objective: To compare lipid emulsion-induced hemolysis in blood from dogs with inflammatory leukograms to blood from healthy dogs, and determine the impact of a prototypical soy-based phospholipid emulsion on coagulation in whole blood from healthy dogs.

Design: Ex vivo study using EDTA and citrated whole blood from healthy dogs and EDTA anticoagulated whole blood from dogs with inflammatory leukograms.

Setting: University research laboratory.

Animals: Healthy dogs (total of 16, 9 for hemolysis assays and 6 for thromboelastography) included student- and staff-owned animals. Blood samples from dogs with inflammatory leukograms (8) were obtained from the clinical pathology laboratory after the complete blood count was performed as part of patient care. For the purposes of this study, an inflammatory leukogram was defined as a neutrophilia with a left-shift (minimum of 3% band neutrophils) and evidence of toxic change.

Interventions: None.

Measurements and main results: Hemolysis was measured via spectrophotometric quantification of released hemoglobin and expressed as a percent of a water-lysed control. The soy emulsion caused hemolysis in blood from healthy dogs, ranging from 3.6% to 16.4% as the dose increased, and 4.1% to 25.0% in blood from dogs with inflammatory leukograms. Hemolysis between these patient groups was significantly different at the highest dose. Coagulation was assessed by native thromboelastography. Treatment of whole blood with the lipid emulsion caused a significant decrease in the time to clot formation (R) and a shorter time to reach a clot amplitude of 20 mm (K).

Conclusions: Soy-based lipid emulsions cause hemolysis that is more severe in blood from dogs with inflammatory leukograms and accelerate clot formation in canine blood. The in vivo significance of these findings is not clear at this time, but warrants additional investigation given the use of these emulsions in clinical practice.

Keywords: TEG; dog; hemostasis; nutrition; parenteral; thrombosis.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Coagulation Tests / veterinary
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Dog Diseases / blood*
  • Dogs
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / administration & dosage
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / pharmacology*
  • Female
  • Glycine max*
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / veterinary*
  • Male
  • Platelet Aggregation / drug effects*
  • Thrombelastography / veterinary


  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous