Lancet. 2018 Apr 21;391(10130):1608-1621. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30324-6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.


Following unsuccessful eradication attempts there was a resurgence of malaria towards the end of the 20th century. Renewed control efforts using a range of improved tools, such as long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets and artemisinin-based combination therapies, have more than halved the global burden of disease, but it remains high with 445 000 deaths and more than 200 million cases in 2016. Pitfalls in individual patient management are delayed diagnosis and overzealous fluid resuscitation in severe malaria. Even in the absence of drug resistance, parasite recurrence can occur, owing to high parasite densities, low host immunity, or suboptimal drug concentrations. Malaria elimination is firmly back as a mainstream policy but resistance to the artemisinin derivatives, their partner drugs, and insecticides present major challenges. Vaccine development continues on several fronts but none of the candidates developed to date have been shown to provide long-lasting benefits at a population level. Increased resources and unprecedented levels of regional cooperation and societal commitment will be needed if further substantial inroads into the malaria burden are to be made.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Artemisinins / therapeutic use
  • Disease Eradication
  • Drug Discovery
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Humans
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Insecticide-Treated Bednets
  • Malaria / diagnosis
  • Malaria / drug therapy*
  • Malaria / epidemiology
  • Malaria / prevention & control
  • Malaria Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Mosquito Control
  • Protective Factors
  • Risk Factors


  • Antimalarials
  • Artemisinins
  • Malaria Vaccines
  • artemisinin