[Autoantibodies in Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome]

Brain Nerve. 2018 Apr;70(4):329-339. doi: 10.11477/mf.1416201006.
[Article in Japanese]

Abstract

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are caused by immune responses against neuronal antigens expressed by the tumor. Based on the immunological pathomechanisms and responsiveness of treatments, onconeuronal antibodies are divided into two categories: 1) antibodies against neural intracellular antigens and 2) antibodies against neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. The recent discovery of onconeuronal antibodies have radically changed concepts of CNS autoimmunity, including PNS. The recognition of PNS provides a foundation for the early detection of underlying tumors and initiations of prompt treatments, which can result in substantial improvement. We here review the characteristic onconeuronal antibodies, including anti-Hu, anti-Ma2, and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and discuss the algorithm for the diagnosis of PNS.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • ELAV Proteins / immunology
  • Humans
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology
  • Neurons / immunology
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / diagnosis
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology*
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / immunology

Substances

  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Autoantibodies
  • ELAV Proteins
  • Ma2 antigen
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate