Introduction: CANOMAD/CANDA are syndromes characterized by ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, monoclonal gammopathy, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies.
Methods: A retrospective review of our neuromuscular autoantibody panel database was performed. Anti-GD1b seropositive patients with ataxia were included.
Results: Eleven patients were identified. Median age at onset was 56 years. Median disease duration was 6 years. All patients had gait disorders. Nine had ocular motility abnormalities. Most had a monoclonal protein and all had elevated serum IgM. Electrodiagnostic studies showed a mixed axonal/demyelinating pattern (6), an axonal pattern (4), or a pure demyelinating pattern (1). Ultrasounds showed nerve enlargement patterns consistent with acquired demyelination. A nerve biopsy showed near complete loss of myelinated axons with preservation of smaller axons. Rituximab was the most effective immunotherapy.
Conclusion: CANOMAD/CANDA are rare and debilitating disorders with characteristic clinical and diagnostic findings. In our cohort, nerve ultrasound showed regional nerve enlargement and rituximab was the most effective immunomodulatory therapy.
Keywords: Ataxic neuropathies; CANDA; CANOMAD; Disialosyl antibodies; Immune therapy; Ultrasound.