Use of the MIRUS™ system for general anaesthesia during surgery: a comparison of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane

J Clin Monit Comput. 2018 Aug;32(4):623-627. doi: 10.1007/s10877-018-0138-z. Epub 2018 Apr 9.


The MIRUS™ system enables automated end-expired control of volatile anaesthetics. The device is positioned between the Y-piece of the breathing system and the patient's airway. The system has been tested in vitro and to provide sedation in the ICU with end-expired concentrations up to 0.5 MAC. We describe its performance in a clinical setting with concentrations up to 1.0 MAC. In 63 ASA II-III patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery, the MIRUS™ was set to keep the end-expired desflurane, sevoflurane, or isoflurane concentration at 1 MAC while ventilating the patient with the PB-840 ICU ventilator. After 1 h, the ventilation mode was switched from controlled to support mode. Time to 0.5 and 1 MAC, agent usage, and emergence times, work of breathing, and feasibility were assessed. In 60 out of 63 patients 1.0 MAC could be reached and remained constant during surgery. Gas consumption was as follows: desflurane (41.7 ± 7.9 ml h-1), sevoflurane (24.3 ± 4.8 ml h-1) and isoflurane (11.2 ± 3.3 ml h-1). Extubation was faster after desflurane use (min:sec): desflurane 5:27 ± 1:59; sevoflurane 6:19 ± 2:56; and isoflurane 9:31 ± 6:04. The support mode was well tolerated. The MIRUS™ system reliable delivers 1.0 MAC of the modern inhaled agents, both during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous (assisted) breathing. Agent usage is highest with desflurane (highest MAC) but results in the fastest emergence. Trial registry number: Clinical Trials Registry, ref.: NCT0234509.

Keywords: Desflurane; Inhalation drug administration; Isoflurane; Sevoflurane.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anesthesia Recovery Period
  • Anesthesia, Inhalation / instrumentation*
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation / administration & dosage*
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee
  • Desflurane / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Isoflurane / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration, Artificial
  • Sevoflurane / administration & dosage


  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Sevoflurane
  • Desflurane
  • Isoflurane